četrtek, 07. april 2011

Delitev je prihodnost

Da smo na ekonomskem področju (in na vseh drugih področjih na katere ima ekonomija vpliv - to pa so praktično vsa področja človeške družbe in naravno okolje) zašli v slepo ulico, je danes jasno praktično vsakomur. Spremembe so potrebne in to zelo globoke. Današnji ukrepi za reševanje ekonomske krize (zniževanje vseh mogočih pravic ljudi in hkrati večanje vpliva ekonomskih ustanov kot so velike banke in korporacije) sploh niso ukrepi za reševanje, temveč krizo samo še poglabljajo.

Danes so praktično vsi ekonomski odnosi utemeljeni na trgovanju oziroma natančneje na menjavi. Skoraj vse kar potrebujemo kupimo in imamo v lasti. Kar je skrajno potratno. Veliko stvari, ki jih imamo, uporabljamo zelo redko.

Primer avtomobil
V eni od raziskav v Veliki Britaniji so odkrili, da mestni prebivalci avto uporabljajo samo 4,6 ure na teden, kar pomeni, da avto kar 97% časa ni v uporabi (Accessing Cars), medtem ko so povprečni letni stroški za en avto 5.500 funtov (6.300 €) - gorivo, vzdrževanje, zavarovanje, popravila, cestnine itd. Kar je zelo neekonomično.

Danes obstajajo številne alternativne oblike “lastništva” avtomobilov. Še posebej atraktivna oblika je delitev avtomobilov. V ZDA doživljajo pravi razcvet na tem področju, na primer: Zipcar, RelayRides, Zimride itd. Avta ni nujno imeti v lasti, če pa ga že imamo, ga lahko delimo z drugimi in pri tem še nekaj zaslužimo.

Takšnih možnosti je še veliko (glej blog Medsebojna delitev), zato lahko rečemo, da je ekonomija delitve velik obet prihodnosti, saj omogoča velike prihranke naravnih virov, manjše obremenitve okolja, pravičnejšo porazdelitev dobrin (večja dostopnost) in boljšo povezanost med ljudmi.

Poleg načina, kako lahko pridemo do dobrin (seveda bomo še vedno veliko stvari kupovali, na primer osebne predmete, hrano itd.), pa moramo spremeniti tudi naš odnos do naravnih virov in dobrin ter zagotoviti njihovo pravičnejšo globalno porazdelitev. Ključne globalne dobrine (voda, žitarice in drugi osnovni prehrambeni pridelki, energetski viri, gozdovi itd.) ne bi smeli biti več premet brezvestnega izkoriščanja ali sredstvo za bogatenje posameznikov, temveč je potrebno z njimi ravnati odgovorno in jih pravično deliti med seboj. V ta namen bi bilo potrebno ustanoviti posebno institucijo na globalni ravni, ki bi to omogočala (glej Medsebojna delitev na globalni ravni).

Prav tako so potrebne spremembe na finančnem področju, kjer imajo velike zasebne banke in druge finančne institucije skoraj popoln nadzor nad globalnimi financami. Demokratične institucije praktično nimajo več nobenega nadzora in vpliva nad delovanjem teh ustanov. Potrebno bi bilo obdavčenje vseh finančnih transakcij (s čimer bi zajezili špekulacije), zagotoviti nadzor nad finančnimi tokovi (s čimer bi bistveno omejili delovanje tako imenovanih davčnih oaz), zmanjšati velikost bank in nadzorovati njihovo poslovanje.

Tudi na področju dela so potrebne temeljite spremembe. Da bi več ljudem zagotovili delo, bi morali skrajšati delovni čas in starost upokojitve, ne pa ravno obratno. Razmisliti bi bilo potrebno tudi o univerzalnem temeljnem dohodku.

Možnosti torej so, le lotiti se jih je potrebno. Čimprej.

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